Working Safely in Radiography (eBook)

Product Number 232

Previously published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, this edition is now being published by ASNT.

  • Member Price: $36.50
  • Non-member Price: $49.50


ASNT eBooks require a reader that works with Adobe ID, such as Adobe Digital Editions.

eBook purchases are nonrefundable. You cannot print and copy eBooks unless specifically stated in the Product Description.

Additional Details

  • Item Number: 0232-e
  • ISBN: 978-1-57117-305-8

Editor’s Preface


Chapter 1 - Why Is Safety Training Important?

  • What Is Industrial Radiography?
  • The Beginning of Radiography
    • Discovery of Radium
    • Early Gamma Radiography
  • Radiation Hazards
  • Causes of Radiography Accidents
  • Radiography Facilities
    • Radiation Safety Inspections and Audits
      • Government Licensing
    • Radiation Safety Officer
    • Written Procedures
    • Emergencies
    • Internal Inspections
  • Personnel Certification for Radiation Safety
    • Safety Personnel Certification
    • Radiographer Certification

Chapter 2 - What Is Radiation?

  • A Form of Energy
    • X-radiation
    • Gamma Ray Radiation
    • Collisions
    • Ionization
  • Radiation Quantities and Units
    • Disintegration Rate
    • Exposure
    • Absorbed Dose
    • Dose Equivalent
    • Quality Factor
  • Compound Units
  • Permissible Doses
    • ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable)
      • Prospective Annual Limit for Occupationally
    • Exposed Personnel
      • Permissible Levels of Radiation in Unrestricted Areas
      • Restricted Areas
      • Exposure of Minors
      • Exposure of Females
  • How Much Radiation Are People Exposed To?
    • Natural Sources of Radiation
    • Radiation from Manufactured Sources
    • Occupational Radiation Doses
  • Questions

Chapter 3 - What Is Radioactivity?

  • Radioactivity
    • X-ray Machines
  • Radioactive Decay
    • Half Life
  • Using Graphs
    • Logarithmic Scales
  • Questions

Chapter 4 - What Are the Harmful Effects of Radiation?

  • Prompt Effects of Radiation
    • Radiation Burns
    • Severe Radiation Burn
    • Other Examples
    • Radiation Sickness
    • Deaths from a Radiography Source
  • Delayed Effects of Radiation
    • Cancer
    • How Large Is the Cancer Risk?
    • Genetic Defects from Radiation
    • Radiation Exposure of Pregnant Women
    • How Sure are Scientists About Delayed Effects of Radiation?
  • Questions
  • True or False

Chapter 5 - How Do Time, Distance and Shielding Affect Dose?

  • Time
  • Distance
    • The Inverse Square Law
  • Shielding
    • Protective Enclosures
    • Classes of Installations for X-rays and Gamma Rays
      • Protective Installation
      • Enclosed Installation
      • Unattended Installation
      • Open Installation
  • Discussion
  • Questions

Chapter 6 - How Is Radiation Detected and Measured?

  • Survey Meters Measure Dose Rate
    • Reading a Survey Meter
    • Starting Work with an Operable Survey Meter
    • Making a Radiation Survey
    • Calibration
  • Dosimeters Measure Dose
    • Pocket Dosimeters
    • Film Badges
    • Thermoluminescent Dosimeters
    • Alarm Rate Meter
  • Alarm Systems at Permanent Installations
    • Testing Sources for Leaks
  • Questions

Chapter 7 - How Do Radiography Cameras Work?

  • Types of Cameras
  • Daily Maintenance
  • Quarterly Maintenance
  • Discussion

Chapter 8 - What Are the Basic Rules for Radiography?

  • Who Regulates Radiographers?
  • Reciprocity
  • Offshore Work Sites
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations
    • Part 19 – Radiographers Bill of Rights
    • Part 20 – Basic Radiation Safety
    • Part 34 – Responsibilities [Section 20.2204]
  • True or False
  • Questions

Chapter 9 - What Are the Rules for Transporting Sources?

  • Packaging
    • Special Form and Normal Form [49 CFR Section 173.389(a) and Section 173.398(a)]
    • Amount of Radioactivity in Packages [49 CFR Section 173.389]
    • Type B Packaging [49 CFR Section 173.394(b)]
    • Radiation Limits for Packages
    • Warning Labels
  • Moving the Source to the Work Site
  • Receiving and Shipping Sources
    • Receiving a Source
    • Shipping a Source
  • Questions

Chapter 10 - How Can Following Procedures Help the Radiographer?

  • Operating Procedures
  • Emergency Procedures
    • Recognizing the Emergency
    • Immediate Response
  • Discussion

Chapter 11 - Why Do Radiography Accidents Happen?

  • How Radiography Accidents Happen
    • A Source Is Left Exposed
    • The Omitted Survey
    • Not Locking the Camera
  • But Why?
    • A Case History
    • Some Other Examples
    • The Human Factor
  • Discussion

Appendix A - Agreement States

Appendix B- Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

Appendix C - Glossary

Appendix D - Overexposure Accidents 1971-1980

Appendix E - References and Notes

Appendix F - Credits and Acknowledgments

Terms and Conditions

Books, including ePDF books and merchandise:

  • All sales are final on software and multimedia products.
  • All customers must request a return authorization number from ASNT before attempting to return any items.
  • Materials returned to ASNT must be shipped prepaid. Only unused or defective materials will be considered as returns. If a set is purchased, the complete set must be returned to receive refund. No returns will be accepted after 45 days from date of invoice.

Damaged Items:

  • If item is damaged contact ASNT immediately and keep shipping container.

Delivery Information:

  • Orders are processed as quickly as possible and shipped the next business day of the receipt. If you request 2nd day or next day shipping if the order comes in before noon eastern standard time it will be shipped the same day.   For ground shipping on international delivery, please allow two weeks before inquiring.
  • Customers with shipping addresses outside of the US are responsible for all duties, import taxes, and brokerage fees. These are not included in the cost of shipping or handling of your order. Customs, duties, and taxes vary widely from country to country; please check with your local customs agency for details on estimated costs.  If taxes and duties are not paid by customer, order is forfeited and is non-refundable.
  • The purchaser is responsible for advising ASNT of any customs regulations pertaining to the order and for supplying all proper customs declaration forms with the order.    Please email this information to along with your order number.

Shipment Inquiry:

  • We cannot accept claims of short or lost shipments after 10 days from shipment date for domestic customers or after 20 days from shipment date for international customers.

About ASNT eBooks

ASNT eBooks are ePDFs and they provide you with enhanced flexibility, portability, searching and convenience. Here are some of the basic features of ASNT ePDFs:

    ASNT ePDFs can be read online or offline.
  • You have 90 days to download ePDFs from our web site.
  • We allow up to 6 devices that can be authorized to view ePDFs.
  • Table of Contents allows you to jump directly to major sections of the eBook.
  • You can bookmark a page, or highlight a selection of text, and even add your own notation.  Adobe Digital Editions will save these annotations and allow you to jump directly to them.

ASNT has an obligation to protect content rights and copyright ownership; therefore, there are copyright or distribution restrictions associated with ePDFs as with a printed book. ASNT ePDFs utilize Digital Rights Management (DRM) that is built into Adobe® Digital Editions. Usage and security settings for each ePDF may vary. You can view DRM settings for your ePDF through the Adobe® Digital Editions program. Here are some important restrictions you must be aware of:

  • No copying and pasting is allowed.
  • You cannot print unless specifically stated in the Product Description.
  • No returns are allowed.
  • Each ePDF is intended for a single user. You cannot give away, sell, lend or distribute an ePDF or transfer the user rights to another individual or organization if it has been purchased under your name.
  • ePDFs cannot be shared with your co-workers or staff. They must purchase and download a separate copy of the ePDF.
  • You cannot recreate a PDF of an ePDF.

Other restrictions may apply, please see our user agreement.


Every eBook is suitable for your PC or Mac computer. To make sure your computer can run the program, see the minimum software requirements.

System requirements


  • Intel® Pentium® 4 processor or later
  • Windows® XP SP 3 or Windows® 7 (32 or 64 bit running in 32-bit mode)
  • 512MB of RAM (1GB recommended)
  • 40MB of available hard-disk space

Mac OS

  • Intel Core™ Duo or faster processor
  • Mac OS X v10.6 or later
  • 512MB of RAM (1GB recommended)
  • 75MB of available hard-disk space

Compatible with Apple Retina Display

  • Intel Core™ Duo or faster processor
  • Mac OS X v10.6 or later
  • Compatible with Apple Retina Display
  • 512MB of RAM (1GB recommended)
  • 75MB of available hard-disk space


If you want to use a reading device, there are lots of choices. See a full list of devices and applications that work with Adobe Content Service.

You can download an eBook directly from myASNT to your device, or copy your book from a desktop computer that has been authorized with your Adobe ID.

Before downloadning or transferring your eBook, you must install and authorize an eReader comptible with Adobe ID. We recommend the free Bluefire Reader.

The URL for the Bluefire Reader app in the Google Play Store (Android) is:

The URL for the Bluefire Reader app in the iOS App Store is: